zoom RSS 今年の英語流行語大賞 bailout、change、hypermiling、 overshare

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今年の新語・流行語大賞が発表されたが、英語界でも毎年、the word of the year が選ばれる。the word of the yearを発表する出版社や団体などは主に5つあるが、このうち4つが出そろった。今年は大統領選挙、金融危機を反映しているが、それぞれ選考の個性が出ている。米大手出版社のメリアム・ウェブスター(Merriam-Webster)はbailout、Global Language Monitorはchange、新オクスフォード米語辞典(New Oxford American Dictionary)はhypermiling、Webster’s New World Dictionaryはovershareをそれぞれ選んだ。American Dialect Societyが選ぶthe word of the yearは1月に発表される。(鳥居英晴)

1. bailout
2. vet
3. socialism
4. maverick
5. bipartisan
6. trepidation
7. precipice
8. rogue
9. misogyny
10. turmoil


With politics and the economy foremost on the minds of many, it is no wonder that bailout―a word ubiquitously featured in discussions of the presidency and fiscal policy―took home honors as Merriam-Webster's Word of the Year for 2008.

(多くの人にとって、政治と経済が最も気懸りになっているので、大統領の職と財政政策についての議論でいつも使われた言葉bailoutが2008年のMerriam-Webster's Word of the Yearの栄誉を獲得したのは不思議ではない)

Bailout, defined in Merriam-Webster's Collegiate® Dictionary, Eleventh Edition as "a rescue from financial distress," received the highest intensity of lookups on Merriam-Webster Online over the shortest period of time.

(Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary11版で「金融危機からの救済」として定義されているbailoutは、Merriam-Webster Onlineで最も短い期間で最も多く検索をされた)

これを報じる11月25日のAP通信のStephanie Reitzの記事は、これを次のように伝えている。

The rest of the list is not exactly cheerful. It also includes "trepidation," ''precipice" and "turmoil."


"There's something about the national psyche right now that is looking up words that seem to suggest fear and anxiety," said John Morse, Merriam-Webster's president and publisher.

(Merriam-Webster社長のJohn Morse は「恐れや不安を示すような言葉を調べる国民心理のようなものが今ある」と言う)

Several well-worn terms from the presidential campaign also made the cut: "maverick," ''bipartisan" and, coming in at No. 2, "vet" ― to appraise and evaluate, as in vetting a vice presidential pick.


But none topped "bailout," a seemingly simple word that suddenly took on $700 billion worth of importance in September ― and prompted hundreds of thousands of online lookups within just a few weeks.


So how does Merriam-Webster define "bailout"? As "a rescue from financial distress." But Morse says those who looked it up also seemed to want to know whether it had negative nuances or suggested irresponsibility or blame.


"People seem to have a general understanding of the word 'bailout,' but they seem to want to better understand its application, any connotations it may have and shades of meaning," he said.


Interest in "vet" spiked in June as presidential candidate Barack Obama spoke about the team he had assembled to "vet" possible running mates.


"Socialism" and "rogue" also had many hits ― the former as people debated whether economic help to businesses was tantamount to socialism, and the latter as pundits questioned whether Republican vice presidential candidate Sarah Palin hurt John McCain's presidential bid by "going rogue," or defying his campaign's control.

(socialism, rogueも多くヒットした。前者は、業界を経済的に支援することが社会主義に等しいのかどうか人々が議論した際。また後者は、共和党の副大統領候補、サラ・パイリンが「going rogue手に負えなくなり」、選挙運動のコントロールに従わなかったことで、ジョン・マケインの戦いにマイナスになったかどうか評論家が疑問を呈した際、跳ね上がった)

And "misogyny," defined as hatred of women, was looked up in huge numbers on the online dictionary as Hillary Clinton's supporters questioned whether it had derailed her presidential hopes.


New Oxford American Dictionaryが選んだ言葉は新語が多い。hypermilingについて、Oxford University Pressのブログは、次のように説明している。

“Hypermiling” was coined in 2004 by Wayne Gerdes, who runs this web site.“Hypermiling” or “to hypermile” is to attempt to maximize gas mileage by making fuel-conserving adjustments to one’s car and one’s driving techniques.

(“Hypermiling”はWayne Gerdesによって2004年に造語された。“Hypermiling” ないし“to hypermile”は、車や運転技術に燃料節約技術の調整をして、燃費を最大限にしようとすること)

New Oxford American Dictionaryのfinalists(最終選考)に残ったのは、以下の言葉である。

Frugalista: Person who leads a frugal lifestyle but stays fashionable and healthy by swapping clothes, buying second-hand, growing own produce, etc.(質素なライフスタイルだが、衣類を交換したり、中古品を買ったり、家庭菜園をしたりして、お洒落で健康な生活をする人)

Moofer: A mobile out-of-office worker, as in someone who works away from a fixed workplace, via BlackBerry, a laptop, or Wi-Fi. Also can be used as a verbal noun, as in moofing. (ブラックベリーやラップトップ、Wi−Fiを使い、決まった仕事場から離れて働くようなオフィス外のモバイル・ワーカー。Moofingとして動名詞としても使える)

Topless meeting: A meeting in which the participants are barred from using their laptops, BlackBerries or cellphones.(出席者がラップトップやブラックベリー、携帯電話の使用を禁止された会議)

Toxic debt: Mainly sub-prime debts that are now proving so disastrous to banks. They were parceled up and sent around the global financial system like toxic waste, hence the allusion. (不良債権。銀行に今や破滅的になっている主にサブプライムの債務。有害廃棄物のように、小さく分けられて世界中の金融システムに送られた。従って、隠喩である)

Global Language Monitorはtop word、top phrase、top nameを発表している。

Top 10 words は次の通り。

1. Change – The top political buzzword of the 2008 US Presidential campaign.
2. Bailout – Would have been higher but was not in the media until Mid-September.
3. Obamamania – Describing the worldwide reaction to Barack Obama’s campaign and subsequent victory in the US presidential race.
4. Greenwashing – Repositioning a product to stress its Earth-friendly attributes.
5. Surge – Military and political strategy often cited as reducing violence in Iraq.
6. Derivative – Exotic financial instruments used to cleverly package junk-grade debt.
7. Subprime – Mortgages that were packaged as derivatives.
8. Foreclosure – The end-result of the sub-prime mess.
9. Phelpsian: New word coined to describe the Phelpsian Pheat of winning eight gold medals at the Beijing Olympics.
10. Chinglish – The often amusing Chinese/English language hybrid that Beijing tried to stamp out before the Olympics began.

Top 10 Phrasesは次の通り。

1. Financial Tsunami – Worldwide financial meltdown ultimately stemming from derivatives used to package subprime mortgages.
2. Global Warming – The No. 2 buzzword of the US Presidential Campaign.
3. Yes We Can ― Yes, indeed, he could and he did.
4. Lame Duck – What happens when you wait 2 ½ months from election to inauguration.
5. Working Class Whites – Apparently, working Class Whites is used as a code word for whites who are working class.
6. “It is, what it is” – On everyone’s lips this year meaning ‘unfortunately, those are the facts’.
7. Lip Synching: The fate of Lin Miaoke, the little girl who didn’t sing the song the whole world sings in the Olympics opening ceremony.
8. Price of oil – Oil was supposed to topping out about now at $200/barrel.
9. Super Tuesday – When the race for the Democratic nomination was supposed to be decided.
10. Suddenness Happens – Top Chinglish Phrase from the Beijing Olympics.
   (北京五輪でのChinglishのトップ 「以免発生危険」をLest Suddenness Happens!と訳していた看板があった)

Webster’s New World Dictionaryが選んだovershareの意味は同辞書によると、to divulge excessive personal information, as in a blog or broadcast interview, prompting reactions ranging from alarmed discomfort to approval.(個人情報を漏らしすぎること。ブログや放送にインタビューでのことで、警戒した不快感から支持までさまざまな反応を引き起こす)


Overshare, the 2008 Word of the Year at Webster’s New World® College Dictionary, is the name given to TMI (too much information), whether willingly offered or inadvertently revealed. It is the word for both the tedious minutiae on personal websites and blogs and the accidental slips of the tongue in public (or even private) situations.

(Webster’s New World College Dictionaryのthe 2008 Word of the Yearに選ばれたovershareはTMI{多すぎる情報}に与えられた言葉。進んで提供されたか、うっかりして示したもの。それは、個人のサイトやブログ上のつまらない細かなことや公や私的な場でたまたまの言い誤りの言葉)

Webster’s New World Dictionaryの最終選考に残ったのはovershare以外は、次の4つ。

leisure sickness: a purported syndrome, not universally recognized by psychologists, by which some people (typically characterized as workaholics) are more likely to report feeling ill during weekends and vacations than when working.(心理学者には一般的に認められていない症候群。一部の人が、仕事中毒の人が典型的だが、仕事をしている時より週末や休暇に体調がすぐれないこと)

cyberchondriac : a hypochondriac who imagines that he or she has a particular disease based on medical information gleaned from the Internet.(インターネットから医学情報を収集して、病気ではないかと想像する心気症患者)

selective ignorance: the practice of selectively ignoring distracting, irrelevant, or otherwise unnecessary information received, such as e-mails, news reports, etc.(受け取ったメールやニュースなど無関係で不必要な情報を選択的に無視すること)

youthanasia: “ … the controversial practice of performing a battery of age-defying medical procedures to end lifeless skin and wrinkles; advocated by some as a last-resort measure to put the chronically youth-obsessed out of their misery … Think of it as mercy lifting.” ―Armand Limnander, New York Times.(「死んだ皮膚やしわを取り除く一連の医療処置を行うこと。長く若さにとりつかれた人たちを苦痛から救い出す最後の手段として一部の人によって宣伝されている・・・。それを気分を高揚させる有難いものと考えたらどうだろう」



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今年の英語流行語大賞 bailout、change、hypermiling、 overshare 時事英語ブリーフィング/BIGLOBEウェブリブログ
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